Folic acid supplements are POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE or there is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about their effectiveness in prevention or treatment of age-related hearing loss, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), alcoholism , Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, cancer (breast, cervical, colorectal, esophageal, lung, prostate, stomach), cleft lip, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy (seizures), fragile-X syndrome, gout, gum disease, heart attack or stroke, HIV/AIDS, infertility in men, insomnia, liver disease, muscle pain, nerve pain, osteoporosis, re-blockage of blood vessels after angioplasty, restless leg syndrome, sickle cell anemia, side effects of lometrexol, vitiligo, or improving memory and thinking skills in older people [1,4] .
Because non-genomic pathways include any mechanism that is not a genomic effect, there are various non-genomic pathways. However, all of these pathways are mediated by some type of steroid hormone receptor found at the plasma membrane.  Ion channels, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), and membrane fluidity have all been shown to be affected by steroid hormones.  Of these, GPCR linked proteins are the most common. For more information on these proteins and pathways, visit the steroid hormone receptor page.